Also, a photograph or photograph, or just a snapshot
In a broader sense, photography - the art of obtaining photographs where the basic creative process is to search for and selection of the composition, lighting and moment (or moments) of the photograph. Such a choice is determined by the ability and skill of the photographer, as well as his personal preference and taste, which is typical for any kind of art.
Depending on the operating principle of the photosensitive material to divide the image [ source not specified 884 days ] in the three major subdivisions:
Chemical picture - based on photographs, in which there are photochemical processes.
Digital photography - in the process of acquiring and retaining the image is moving electric charges (usually as a result of the photoelectric effect and for further processing), but there is no chemical reaction or movement of a substance. Should have been called a photo e , as in a number of devices that are traditionally attributed to the 'digital', there are analog processes (this is the very first camera with an electronic matrix Sony Mavica , are many cheap cameras CCTV).
Electrographic and other processes in which there is no chemical reaction, but the mass transfer occurs, forming an image. Special of the common name for this section is not developed until the advent of digital photography often use the term 'besserebryanaya picture.'
Also used the following phrases:
Galogenoserebryanaya picture for galogenoserebryanogo photographic process.
Besserebryanaya Photography - for all other photographic processes .
Analogue photography - as a synonym for film photography, as opposed Digital.
Analog printing , optical printing - getting photos through the optical zoom from the negative or the use of a special projector (for optical digital photo printing), in opposition to the digital printing method.
Preparation of the moving image, based on photographic principles, called the film industry .
Photo is based on science-especially in the field of optics , mechanics and chemistry . Development at the current stage of digital photography is mostly due to electronic and information technology.
Principle of operation
The principle of operation is based on a photo image and fixing them by means of chemical and physical processes, obtained by means of light , ie electromagnetic waves emitted or reflected immediately.
Images using reflected from the objects of the visible light received in ancient times and used for painting and technical work. The method, named after orthoscopic photography does not require major optical devices. In those days, used only small holes, and sometimes cracks.
Projected image on the opposite surface of these holes. Further, the method has been improved with the aid of optical devices that are placed on the hole location. This was the basis for a camera that limits the output image from the illumination light is not carrying the image. The camera was called the pinhole , the image is projected onto its back wall of the mat and redraw the contour of the artist. After the invention of methods of chemical fixation of images, the camera obscura was the prototype of the design of photographic apparatus . The name 'picture' was chosen as the most harmonious of several variants of the French Academy in 1839 .
As the photos were a large number of different structures and support mechanisms for image acquisition. The main device - camera, abbreviated as 'camera' or 'camera' and belonging to him.
Main article : The camera
A modern DSLR camera- Canon EOS 40D
Either the camera is:
lens - optical system that forms the optical image on a photosensitive material ;
shutter , which determines the time during which the light falls on a photosensitive material (it can fulfill the role of the lens cover);
housing that protects the photosensitive material from unauthorized exposure light in the process of shooting, with the objective lens barrel or body board can be used for focusing;
cassette with a photosensitive material (disposable cameras it is a building) or the CCD with its attendant equipment;
All other elements of the camera does not have a direct impact on the process of shooting, and may be present in the structure, and absent.
Photos and Photo
Main articles : Photographic
Besides the camera and interchangeable lenses, while shooting may be other photographic .
Light meter and fleshmetr - devices for the measurement of light shooting conditions.
Lighting equipment. For shooting in low light using different lighting and reflectors. The most widespread among them began to flash , but in a studio and movie filming continue to apply traditional lighting systems.
Studio lighting . In the studio photography using special flash that an order of magnitude more powerful than being connected to hot shoe . There are two types of studio lighting: pulsed and continuous illumination.
Tripods are used to prevent the ' smear 'in low light, shooting panoramas , at high exposures, to install additional lighting for multiple shoot one frame, etc.
Filters are used to compensate for the color (conversion) and spatial (gradient) deficiencies lighting, special effects.
In digital photography - the program of image processing , computers in general, and photo printers .
Main article : Film Photography
In film photography - fotoreaktivy, tank , enlarger , masking frame , light red light, etc.