comparison of surface macrotexture measurement methods.
Introduction macro texture is a measurement method that can be used to quantify the texture, roughness and friction properties of roads and other surfaces. Pavement texture is important because it affects many important factors in the design phase of the project. The surface temperature is related to noise emission, friction, rolling resistance, splash and spray, and the determination of tire wear, and can be used for these measurements, all of which contribute to the design and performance of the roadway. The physical properties of pavement materials have been investigated on site (Kim et al. 2011). The method of volume or sand (Astm e 965 2006 It has been used in the past as a major technique for measuring the macroscopic texture of the road surface. Macro textures can be defined as surface irregularities where the wavelength changes between about 0. 5 and 50 mm. The texture depth of the surface that performs the sand patch test, represented by the average texture depth (MTD). Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of laser-based systems that can not only measure macro textures statically, but also at different speeds. However, none of these different methods measure the samesurface attribute and often produce different measurements (Flintsch et al. 2003, 2005). Due to these differences, it is critical to determine the method that is best suited to measure the macroscopic texture of the road surface. In this study, several methods were used to determine the features of laboratory samples with different surface features. The results of the sand block test, computer tomography, laser contour scan, laser texture scan and circular texture instrument scan were evaluated and compared. 1. Constructed or obtained laboratory samples of asphalt and Portland cement concrete with different finishes and mix ratio designs as well as various other textured surfaces. A description of the sample and test results can be found in Fisco (2009) And Fisco) and Sezen (2012). 1. 1. Three different 356mm diameter and 76mm thick asphalt samples of asphalt samples are produced by manually compressing the samples in the ametal mold. Stone matrix asphalt ( Medium grade SMA) The sample is composed of 7 aggregates with an approximate particle size of 4. 8 mm. SMAsamples has a relatively rough surface texture but is less than coarse grade asphalt. This type of asphalt is usually used as high Interstate Highways are abundant due to their leveling, drainage, friction, rut resistance and noise control properties. The coarse-grade asphalt concrete or the open-grade sample is composed of 57 aggregates with a particle size of 4. 8 to 25. 4mm, and contains large surface irregularities. The sample looks very porous and the surface texture is very rough. The gap in the open grade asphalt provides excellent drainage properties, thus reducing blockage and injection. The dense grade asphalt sample is composed of 8 limestone, and the approximate aggregate size is 2. 5mm, seems very intensive. The smallest void between the aggregate and the adhesive seems to exist, although it has a relatively rough surface texture. It has a smooth surface of the three asphalt samples used in this study. When the design is correct, this asphalt is relatively non-permeable and is suitable for use on all pavement layers and under all traffic conditions. 1. 2. The concrete sample is 305mm in diameter and 38mm in thickness. For all samples, in the course of the experiment, when the sample rotates, the finish simulates the line pattern with a radial or circular pattern. To maintain consistency, two samples were made for each finish, in addition to the burlap flip. By dragging a piece of moist burlap cloth ( AASHTO M182 level 2) Along the surface, create 1. 6mm deep. This finish is usually used on roads with lower driving speeds ( Less than 70 kilometers per hour) And cheaper and quieter than most color finishes (Hoerner et al. 2003). Prepare artificial lawn resistance with 6 inverted artificial lawns. 4- Mm long blade and/[Blade]ft. sup. 2] The drug forms stripes along the surface. The study found that this surface treatment can provide better surface friction and noise quality. Longitudinal broom specimens were made along the surface using a hand broom with a hair bristles drug, resulting in 1. 6 to 3. 2mm deep. This finish is found to be a lower-cost, lower-quality alternative to the patch finish, sufficient for roads with a driving speed of up to 70 km/h (Hoerner et al. 2003). Made 3 with metal spatula. 2 to 6. 4 mm deep, 3. In the transverse tooth sample, widedemes with a radius of 2mm and a spacing of 19mm are 127mm. Due to the high efficiency of grooves in the rapid removal of surface water, this type of coloring is cost-effective and improves the friction properties of the road surface. One drawback of this is that it will increase the noise on the road. Use a metal spatula to obtain the concrete surface of the smooth surface sample as smooth as possible. This finish is usually used on surfaces such as interior plates. This finish is critical to the sidewalk due to its low surface texture and low friction properties. A moderator was sprayed on the surface of the exposed Aggregatesample, and the top mortar was subsequently removed, leaving the top or aggregate exposed. The advantages of this finish type of road surface include low noise, super high Anti-slip speed, low splash spray, good surface durability. By placing a piece of moist burlap cloth ( AASHTO M182 class 2) Place at the top of the sample surface for 24 hours and take it out. The texture of the random thatched linen pattern left on the surface of the sample. Figure 1 shows three different concrete samples used in this study. 1. 3. Perm other samples-a- The covered rubber stepping stone is round, disk-like Artificial stepping Stone made of recycled rubber particles. The disc is 330 in diameter, 32mm thick and very porous. Due to the jagged rubber particles that make up the composition of the disk, the surface of the disk is moderately rough. USG Tivoli ceiling tile is a kind of square wood fiber ceiling each side 305mm thickness 13mm. There are random 1mm dents on the surface as aesthetic wassmooth. The USG CheyenneCeiling Panel is a 610mm square ceiling Panel made of slagwool and a variety of minerals such as Pearl Rock, silicate and clay. The texture of the tiles is very rough and there are many sharp peaks and irregularities. Sandpaper plates using sand 50, 60 and 80. The 50- Sandpaper is thicker than 60 sand and much thicker than 80 sand. The granite stepping stone is a commercial Stone of 305mm square feet thick. The stone has two different surfaces. One is smooth and the other is relatively rough. 2. The sand block test method in the sand block method or the volume block method, carefully pouring the fixed volume sand or glass ball at the Test position. Using the aflat disc, when trying to keep the sand or glass ball evenly distributed until the disc is in contact with the surface of the material, the sample is unfolded in a circular motion. Calculate the patch area using the average diameter of the circular patch. By dividing the volume of the material by the area covered, the average depth of the layer, or the surface depth (MTD) The calculation of the surface is from equation n (1) Astm e 965 (2006): MTD = 4 x V /[pi]x [D. sup. 2], (1) Where: V is the volume of sand or glass balls; The average diameter is D. Figure 2 shows four sand repair tests performed using 12 pairs of exposed Portland cement concrete samples. 5 ml fine sand per test. 3. The use of digital images for computed tomography, especially for computed tomography (CT) Scan, measure three The dimensional surface features of Pavementshas show great hope. CT scans help to better understand the facial features of the sample. Abbas et al. (2007) The average profile depth is measured using the results of CTscans (MPD) According to astm e 1845 (2005). Similarly, Cotai and Eddie Lake (2007) CT scans were used to quantify the effect of moisture on asphalt structure. CT scans are usually performed using tomography, which involves the slicing process. Two-dimensional x- Combine light or \"slices\" together using an algorithm to form three The size image of the object is scanned around a rotating axis. In this study, the sample was placed on a bed to move the sample through the gantry or opening of the machine. When the sample passes, the gantry rotates around the bed and the sample ( Single axis rotation)andtakes two-dimensional x- Ray image of the sample. The Siemens SOMATOM sensor CT scanner was used in this study. The scanner has a detector array of 64 pieces per rotation scan. Gantry take 0. Do a full rotation in 33 seconds (180 rpm) Total scan time is less than 5 minutes. After the sample was scanned, two people The stereo image werereconstructed uses the TeraRecon Aquarius imaging software. Athree-dimensional (3-D) The rendering of the entire sample was made for each sample. Besides, one three Size rendering by a 100 mm square area of the surface ( Digital 3d and 3e). Although the use of ct imaging is limited in this study, it shows great prospects in obtaining accurate representation of sample surfaces and contours as well as internal structures. However, a limitation of this approach is the need for the core to perform laboratory testing, which makes itimpracical available on-site at this point. 4. In recent years, different laser tools have been successfully used to measure the surface macroscopic texture of road surface (Choubane etal. 2002; Sezen et al. 2008; Byrum et al. 2010). In this project, the alaser profiler provided by Dynatest ( Sacon Optocator 2008-180/390) Used to measure the macro texture of the test sample. The range of the laser is 180mm kilometers and the distance is 390mm kilometers. It has 62 samples. 5 kHz with a resolution of 45 microns. The laser system is installed on the front end of the truck and in a steel box about 305mm from the ground (Fig. 4). A device was established to rotate the sample to simulate a Dynatestlaser profile driven on the surface of the sample. To do this, the aMakita 7,500 RPM metal grinder is attached to an aluminum plate that is bolted to a concrete plate (Fig. 4). The sample is bolted to the aluminum plate and the grinder. In order to make all tests comparable, a reading was made for each sample at a set total distance of 152. Then take the average of all the MPD values on the 152 m segment and use them as the average MPD at the set speed as astm e 1845 (2005). 5. To determine the texture of the road surface, a portable laser macro-texture measuring device for laser texture scanning has recently been developed. This study uses a laser texture scanning system produced by Ames Engineering (Ames2009). The device scans the surface of the material in multiple line scans to measure the average profile depth (MPD) Estimated texture depth (ETD), anda 3- D image of material surface. The scanner is capable of scanning an area of 101. 6mm long, 76. 2mm wide, with a maximum capacity of 1200 lines, equivalent to an average spacing of 0. 0635 between scan lines. The laser distance is 42mm and the vertical and horizontal sampling resolution is 0. 015mm, the contour wavelength is from 0. 03 mm to 50 mm. Four different quarters were tested on each sample and the scanner was set to run 100 lines. 3- Figure 5 shows the rendering of exposed aggregate concrete samples. 6. Ct scanning circular texture instrument (CT meter) Is a surface macro-texture measuring device that uses a laser to measure the MPD along the surface of a circular track measuring scale with a fixed diameter of 284mm. The unit is used din Fu (Manufacturing Industry Co. , Ltd. Of Rifeng CTM. ofJapan (Abe et al. 2001). It uses a laser of 670mm wavelength, the size of 70 [micro] M, the measurement range is 30mm, and the vertical resolution is 3 [micro]m. The arm fitted with the laser rotates at a speed of 7. 5 rpm, the laser sample is rotated at a speed of 1,024 samples permanently. The sample is divided into 8 equal-length 112mm arcs in radial direction ( Marked as A to H) Determine the MPD for each arc. These eight measurements are then averaged to give the overall MPD for the entire surface and produce 2- D surface profile. All of the above specimens are placed on the ground or in a collection device, and then the CT measuring instrument is placed above each specimen. The surface of each sample is scanned three times along the same 284- Mmdiameter circular track with MPD reading and 2- Record the surface profile for each test. As shown in Figure 6, as an example, the measured surface profile of the exposed aggregate sample. 7. By comparing the methods of surface macroscopic texture detection, four main methods of macroscopic texture detection are compared. Dynatest laser profile is obtained by obtaining 2- D-Profile of the surface in the direction of travel. These MPD values must be converted to the estimated texture depth (ETD) Therefore, they can be compared with the MTD measurement of the sand repair method. Ames laser scanner measurement 3- The 102 × 76 mmarea of 3D morphology has been passed many times with laser and compiled month- Dprofile data for each channel. From these compiled configuration files, the ETD value can be calculated, which can be directly compared with the MTD value. CT measuring instrument is another laser-based measurement method. D texture and MPD along the circular track. These MPD values are also converted to ETD in order to be compared with the measurements of the paste test and other methods. One drawback of this approach is that it only measures 2- Thus, it may be possible to miss out on what is happening in other parts of the surface, which may be more rough or smoother than the track being measured. Surface texture features missing from the CT measuring instrument can be used 3- D texture measurement method for sand spots and amesoft. Main disadvantages of 2- D. Ct table and 3- They have a limit on the size of the scan area. These two tools scan to measure the texture of a relatively small surface. It is impractical to measure the macro texture of large road sections. 2- The DDynatest laser profiler can easily measure the macro texture of the large surface. The 2- D. There may be porous and open problems in testing Highly textured surface. Because there is a big gap on these surfaces, so 2- D profiler captures all the peaks and lows of the void. Instead, the profile captures some extremes, but to a large extent captures the point in the middle, thus undervaluing the actual texture. Similarly, the sand paste test cannot accurately predict the texture of a very rough or porous surface, because the uniform distribution of sand or glass balls may not be possible. 7. 1. The average profile depth of the texture depth of the laser profiler and the laser scanner (MPD) The value provided by Dynatest laserfiler is obtained as the average value of the MPD value calculated at the user-specified interval. MPD values are used based on ASTM specification E 1845 (2005). According to astm e 1845, the profile is divided into segments with a base length of 100mm. The slope of each segment and the height of the peak are determined. Then calculate the difference between the height and the average level of the segment. The average of these differences that make up all sections of the measured profile is ultimately reported as the mpd for the entire road section. In order to compare the MPD with the average texture depth (MTD) From the sandpatch test, the MPD is reclassified to the estimated texture depth using the conversion equation (ETD). Eqn (2) An ETD value close to the MTD value obtained from volume technology based on astm e 965 should be generated (2006) And astm e 1845 (2005) In mm: ETD = 0. 2 + 0. 8 x MPD. (2) After each laser scan, the Ames laser scanner reports the average MPD in the scanned sample area. The average MPD is then converted to ETD using equation n (2) Recommended by Ames (2009). 7. 2. The texture depth obtained from the ct instrument converts the MPD value obtained from each of the three paths along the same track from the sample using equation n to MTD (3) ASTM e2h7 (2005)in mm units. For the purposes of this study, this mtd will be called ETD to avoid confusion when comparing samplemacro with different methods below. Average the three-run ETD values to obtain the total ETD average for each sample. Since the diameter of most samples is only 305mm, the CT measuring instrument is measured with a diameter of 284mm, so the macro texture near the edge may be slightly different (edge effects): MTD = 0. 947 x MPD + 0. 069. (3)7. 3. Macro texture comparison table 1 from different methods shows the MTD value of the volume sand spot test and the ETD value calculated from the equation (2)and (3) Use the theMPD values in Ames laser texture scanner, Dynatest laser profiler, and CT meter tests, respectively. The data reported in Laserprofiler Table 1 corresponds to the laser speed of 40 km/h. Table 1 shows that open grading and SMA asphalt samples and exposed aggregate concrete samples have the highest MTD and ETD values. In contrast, the average MPD and ETD values of smooth granite samples are minimal. In concrete samples, the exposed aggregate samples are the roughest, while the MPD and ETD values of smooth finished samples are the smallest. For these paper samples, the average MPD and ETD decrease as the number of sand grains increases, which is expected because the fineness of sandpaper increases as the number of sand grains increases. Table 1 shows that, in general, Ames laser texture scanning results are comparable to those of dynatest laser profiler and CT meter ETD compared to those of sand spot MTD. Average percentage difference between sand block data (MTD) Methods such (ETD) Also counted. When taking the average value, the porous sample (e. g. rubberstepping- Grade asphalt) Due to the potential shortage of these surface types of sand patch methods, it was not taken into account. As mentioned earlier, when the sand is poured to the surface, the sand flows in the void, thus bringing a smaller value to the mtd, thus overestimating the mtd. This is an advantage of using an alaser-based system. In addition, the asphalt sample was not considered by the Dynatest laser profile comparison. This is because the surface texture changes when the sample rotates at high speed and cannot be adequately suppressed. The overall average percentage difference between Ames laser texture scanner, Dynatest laser profiler and CT scanner was 28%, 36% and 37%, respectively. Average and classify percentage differences based on sample types (Concrete or nonpavement)and texture ( Rough is too Rough when more than 1. 90mm or over smooth when MTD is less than 0. 25 mm). It was found that the percentage difference of laser texture scanner on concrete breakdown was the smallest, while the percentage difference of CT measuring instrument on non-concrete breakdown was the smallest Samples of pavement and smooth. 8. The test result analysis analyzes the results of each method by comparing the MPDdata of each method with the MTD value of the sandpile test. Abest- The fitting line and correlation coefficient of the two methods are calculated. The closer the correlation coefficient is to 1. 0, the better the correlation, the better the method (Moore et al. 2009). Many researchers, including Prowell and Hanson (2005) Flintsch and others. (2005)Meegoda, etc. (2005) Wang and others. (2011) This technique is used to compare the macroscopic texture methods such as CT measuring instrument and laser contour meter. Figure 7a shows the relationship between the MTD value of the sand spot test and the MPD data obtained from the laser texture scanner. The TheMPD measurements obtained from the laser profiler at a speed of 40 km/h were plotted on the sand sheet MTD to determine how relevant the data is. Similar linear relationships were obtained for sand spot MTD and CT instrument MPD data. Equations related to the sand patch data and MPD data of the laser texture scanner, laser profiler and CT measuring instrument are shown and compared with the corresponding standards in table 2. Conclusion The macroscopic structure of 26 laboratory specimens was obtained using the following methods: 1) Test Method of sand block; 2)x- Computed tomography (CT)scanner; 3)laser profiler; 4) Laser texture scanner; and 5) Laser circular texture meter (CT meter). Most of the analysis discussed in this article is under the assumption that the sand patch test measurement (MTD) It is the most accurate predictor of surface macro texture. This may not be correct because there is no way to get a real accurate measurement of the macroscopic texture of the road surface. For example, the conclusion reached in this study is that sand repair tests should not be used to predict the macroscopic structure of the porous surface. If a new device or measurement method is developed in the future, MTD-based relationships can be updated using the new method, as has been done in this study. Laser texture scanner can be used to collect as long as it is practicalD and 3- Surface macro texture data. Due to the various limitations of each method studied in this paper, the laser scanner may be the most suitable device for measuring the macroscopic texture of the surface. In this study, it was found that a fairly accurate MPD can be obtained within 60 seconds, which is usually less than the time requirement for sand spot testing. It was found that the laser texture scanner mpd had a higher correlation with the MTD in the sand spot test. Due to the time and traffic control required to perform laser texture scanning, 2- Due to its fast, relatively easy to operate and the relative accuracy of predicting the surface texture, the D laser profiler may be more superior. It is found that the relationship between MTD and MPD is different from the equation presented in astm e 1845 (2005) And astm e 2157 (2005). The simplified equation shown in Table 2 is proposed for the laser texture meter, laser profile meter and CT instrument studied in this study. It is also recommended to use general equations to predict the standard macro structure (MTD) MPD measured by a scanner or laser device. The confirmation funding for the study was provided by the Ohio Department of Transport (ODOT); Thank you for that. The content of this article reflects the author\'s views and does not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of sponsors or other entities. Samples of asphalt and concrete were made by Kokosing Materials Inc. ODOT and by, respectively. The CT measuring instrument is provided by Burns, Cooley, Dennis, Inc. Through the Federal Highway Administration loan program, Ridgeland, Mississippi. The authors would like to thank these entities and the University of Ohio Automation Research Center, Ames engineering. , and Dynatest. A. Mention Abbas; Kutay, M. E. ; Azari, H. ; Rasmussen, R. 2007. 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New York: W. H. Freeman and the companyProwell, B. D. ; Hanson, D. I. Evaluation of a circular texture measuring instrument for measuring the texture of the surface of the road surface, transport research record 1929: 88-96. Sezen, H. ; Fisco, N. ; Luff, P. 2008. Verification of the Odot slaser macro texture system. Columbus, Ohio. 117 p. Wang, W. ; Yan, X. P. ; Huang, H. ; Chu, X. ; Abdel-Aty, M. 2011. Design and Verification of laser-based macro-texture measuring device for pavement, Transportation Research, part 682-694. Nicholas Fisco )(a), Halil Sezen (b)(a) Cleveland TranSystems Corporation, Ohio, USA (b) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA, received 43210 on April 08, 2012; Accept the June 26, 2012 newsletter by Halil Sezen E-mail: sezen. 1@osu. Edu Nicholas Tse FISCO ). A structural engineer at TranSystemsCorporation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. He received his master\'s degree from Ohio State University in 2009. Halil SEZEN. Associate Professor, Department of Civil, Environmental and surveying engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA. He received a bachelor\'s, master\'s and doctoral degree from the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey; Cornell University, New York; The University of California, Berkeley.