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homemade quantum laser micrometer (nestor\'s micrometer)
For cooler projects, I don\'t access my youtube page using my inbox: Is Quantum laser micrometers?
It\'s very simple, the decimeter is a device that measures the width of very small objects.
Small widths are usually measured either mechanically or electronically.
Quantum scale with laser, Nano
Distance can be measured with greater accuracy than other methods, and you can make one at home cheaply!
In this simple but detailed explanation, I will show you how to reconstruct my spin in the famous \"double slit\" experiment at home, to illustrate some strange quantum mechanical effects and the way they work to find the width of human hair, to make things appear in two positions at the same time, and to \"erase\" information from the universe, display sometimes something looks like it\'s in two positions at the same time, but once you interact with it becomes a location.
After completing this note, you will hopefully have a more complete understanding of quantum mechanics, what it means, why it is relevant, and how to use it creatively.
What people don\'t realize is that it is possible to reconstruct experiments that trigger the field of quantum physics by using only household materials.
After a chemistry lecture by one of my professors explaining quantum mechanics, I bet with a friend that I can do a \"double slit experiment\" with only human hair, laser indicators, a rope, A tape measure, tape and other common materials.
This is a new device that can be used to measure nanometers.
The distance at home is only a few dollars: Quantum laser (
Or a thousand-meter for Nestor, if you think it\'s worth mentioning).
Quantum physics is a relatively new field of physics.
Just as Sir Isaac Newton\'s theory explains a very large movement, quantum mechanics focuses on a very small world of mystery and comes up with several amazing claims.
Quantum physics is based on the concept that matter is like a particle (solid)
When it is part of a large object, because it has a greater impact on the environment, but behaves more like a wave (
In many possible places, such as clouds or \"potential waves\" that radiate outward \")
When it is smaller, there is less interaction with the environment.
In fact, the concept of the particle itself is not as \"solid\" as one originally thought, but can be considered as a distribution of energy (such as light)
Discrete quantity (\"quanta\").
This was originally a difficult concept to understand, but essentially, wave/particle duality means matter (stuff)
Before the universe records its existence by interacting with it, there is no certain position (
For example, when it hits something or when the light hits it);
Therefore, smaller particles are more likely to behave more \"wave-like\" and larger particles or substances behave more \"solid \".
\"I will discuss this again later.
Okay, I don\'t want to scare you off.
This experiment is actually very simple, but the concept behind it is a bit confusing at first (
Quantum physics, after all).
Basically, we know that if matter is a very large sphere, it behaves as \"solid\" as a single point, but the smaller the sphere, the more it behaves like a\"
Usually, when people think of \"waves\", they think of waves or sound waves.
When the word \"wave\" is used here, the meaning is simple, just like the ripples in the pond, if a wave-like particle is moving, at any given time after it starts to move, it will radiate \"ripples\" anywhere, along the source from which it starts to move \".
The picture above is what I mean.
This is one of the \"weird\" quantum effects we are going to illustrate.
Because we know about it. things)
Should only be in one place, not two, and when one of the ripples hits another object and thus \"interacts\" with the universe, the wave-like behavior of the material spots disappears, and start acting like in a place (“solid”)again.
In other words, if the ripple touches something, or if we try to see the spot behave like it in many places, the spot says to itself, \"Oh, no!
They caught me . . . . . . I will act like I\'m in another place.
\"Even if things are like this, we can still capture the behavior of it, just as it appears in many places at the same time, just like the waves.
The \"double slit\" experiment is how we do this.
If we pass something through two slit, it will produce two pattern of click band on the back of the wall, we know it is like a solid particle.
If it forms a pattern with many tap bands on the back of the wall, we know it is wavy.
OK, now take a laser pen, tape, super glue, two staples, a rubber band, some cardboard, a rope, a piece of paper, a pencil, a tape and a hair.
If you have more than one color laser indicator then do this experiment with two colors!
Any color is OK.
In terms of hair color, black works best.
It still works if you don\'t have black hair, but it won\'t be so accurate when you find the width of the hair. Okay.
The first thing is to do something with a stapler and a small piece of cardboard to support the hair.
It doesn\'t matter if you can make the hair vertical or horizontal, but the point is that the hair should be straight and on the ground.
The hair is like two cracks.
Things can go to the area above or below the hair, but don\'t go through the hair, because the hair will clog the hair like two cracks, and things can be in one crack or another, but it will be blocked by something --
Between two slit.
In this experiment, the \"thing\" we shot through two slit is light.
Is light composed of waves or photon particles?
The answer is two.
Photons are very small, so they can behave like waves or solid particles we discussed before.
Wrap the rubber band around the \"on\" button of the laser so it continues to shine and you don\'t have to hold the button down.
Now tie your \"crack\" to the end of the table and shine your hair with a laser.
You may have seen the wave pattern on the wall!
If that\'s all you want to see, then you don\'t have to do anything else.
Now, we will use this pattern to find the width of that little hair, and then after mysteriously removing the information from the universe (
In the author\'s notes).
Make a small laser holder with a piece of cardboard so it will shine on the hair and you don\'t have to put it there. Tape it down.
The farther your setup is from the wall, the more accurate your measurements are, so it may be wise to move the table a little back.
Get the rope, tie it to the spot on the wall of the brightest part in the middle of the pattern, and pull the rope to the place where the laser shines the hair.
Cut the Rope there, measure its length, and then remove the rope from the wall where you paste it.
Tape the piece of paper you have to on the wall where the pattern is located, and then mark the middle of each strap with a pencil.
It may be wise to wear some curtains in doing so (
You will understand why when you try).
Keep in mind that the greater the intensity of the laser, the shorter the wavelength, the farther the distance between the hair and the back wall, and the more accurate the final measurement of the hair (
You can measure it more easily and accurately).
I did all the math for you, so all you have to do now is plug all your sizes into my little recipe and you can get the width of your little hair!
You need to know the wavelength of your laser.
It usually has a small label on the laser that says the wavelength of the Nano \"nm.
Because the color depends on the wavelength, the wavelength of the green laser indicator is different from that of the red laser indicator.
Make sure all units are converted to meters.
If you don\'t do this, the equation will be closed for a few orders of magnitude!
If you just want to find the width of your hair, you have finished the experiment!
Most people start their hair from 0.
00001 to 0. 0002 meters.
Therefore, the device you make is a \"quantum scale \"(
Thousands of feet Nestle).
The first time I did this experiment with my friend Pedro, the calculations were a bit inaccurate (
Hair is measured an order of magnitude higher than it should be).
We don\'t know exactly why this is because we used the online modeling double
It does not describe many things observed.
For example, the first highlight is considered to be slightly larger than all the other highlights, and the formula found online does not predict this.
It turns out that many online formulas are only approximate models of double-rather than ideal models
A slit interference pattern, usually dependent on all the maximum values (
Center of highlights)
There is an equal distance between each other. This is false.
To solve this problem, we derive a new formula in which distance d can be measured as accurately as possible.
This particular derivation represents the distance as a function of n, lambda, x, and L, and if you are generous enough to provide a decent mention, I call it \"Nestor-
Amaral equation \"or\" Nestor-
\"Don\'t get blocked by math, all you have to do is plug the numbers in!
Keep in mind that when I say \"Max\" I mean the center of the highlight.
Also, the variable \"x\" is the distance from the center of the Max highlight (
Middle of the pattern)
To the center of the outermost highlight, the variable \"n\" is how many highlights are there, excluding the most central one.
If math and complicated explanations scare you, or if you\'re already confused, stop reading.
Are you still there?
If you want to know more, I will give you more information about quantum mechanics for anyone to understand and explain the quantum eraser experiment. .
First, the characteristic that the spots of the object are located at multiple points at the same time is called \"superposition \".
The pattern you see with many light bands is called \"interference pattern\" because the light interferes with itself (
That is to say, small ripples hit themselves and interact). 1. )The De-
The reason why Broglie relationship matter behaves in this way is not as weird as you thought in the first place.
It just shows that the only reason we see things in one place is because of our potential local waves (
The superposition of our possible state or ripples, etc)
When we interact with something, it crashes.
Big things have a greater impact/interaction with the universe than small things.
For example, if you take an electron, it is surrounded by empty space, so it is free to be in multiple locations at the same time.
The universe does not store information about its location because it does not need it because it does not interact with anything.
We know that the universe is lazy, only do what it has to do, and take the easiest way out of anything (
Quality Assurance, etc).
Now, if we had a baseball, it wouldn\'t be surrounded by empty space.
It\'s surrounded by gas molecules hitting from it, light hitting it, and people looking at it.
The ball\'s past behavior excludes the possibility that it is in multiple places because it contains information in its impact on the environment (
Like the air flow caused by the ball, it hits the window and people remember the ball, sound waves, etc . )).
It is not until it has to be somewhere that something will be somewhere.
Now, there is a relationship between the size, speed and wavelength of a mass (
What a \"wave\" it is \").
This relationship is called \"de-
Brolie relation \"basically means that the wavelength of the spot is equal to the Mapo constant on the momentum.
You can find the constant of Planck on the internet. Momentum is the mass of the object multiplied by its speed.
So you can find out what a \"wave\" person you are, a baseball, a grain of sand, and even an electron. 2. )
Relativity mass some keen readers of you may have noticed that since momentum is equal to mass multiplied by speed and the mass of the photon is zero, its momentum must be zero, so its wavelength is infinite
The photon does not have a \"stationary mass\" but has a \"relativity mass \".
The difference between the two qualities is that no matter what your speed is, the rest mass is always the same, but not necessarily the relativity mass, which is the result of general relativity.
In fact, the equation of the solution
Only half of Broglie\'s wavelength is true, just like most formulas given in high school physics are only half true.
I mean, we have to think about general relativity.
In most cases, general relativity is omitted in the equation because it is really noticeable only when you approach the speed of light.
The “real” De-
Broglie wavelength is calculated (
Planck constant /(
Static Mass x speed))x sqrt(1 – (
Speed Square/Speed of Light Square)).
Note that the only thing we add to the equation is a multiplication of the square roots that contain a bunch of things.
What we multiply by is called the \"Lorenzo factor,\" and the closer you get to the speed of light, the closer it gets to zero.
Please note that when we insert everything into this modified formula we get 0/0.
When a person gets \"0/0\" it\'s almost always mathematically saying \"sorry, there may be an answer, but if there is an answer, you have to get it in another way.
\"This is different from when you get a number over zero (infinity)
Or zero on something. zero).
The way we get the real answer, of course, is to assume that photons have a relativity mass and use another formula.
Energy = the speed of light/wavelength in Planck constant x vacuum.
Now you can easily use the small label on the laser pointer to find the wavelength and use it to calculate the energy.
The frequency is calculated as 1/wavelength, so you can also use this relationship to calculate the frequency. 3. )
Almost everyone has heard that the speed of light is \"the fastest speed anything can go\", in other words, \"universal speed limit \".
\"The same is true of information.
For example, if I email you and you are in a light year away, it is impossible for you to receive my message within a year.
The concept also applies to troops.
In order to make Force work, such as magnetic, gravity, or anything else, a \"telephone call\" occurs between the object applying force and the receiving mass \".
The boundary at which information travels to the speed of light propagation is called the \"light cone\" of the information/event \".
\"The information table transmitted and received between two masses is now in what is called\" virtual particles.
\"Virtual particles are messages sent and received that cause the quality to respond in the way they should.
Now, if we know that nothing is going to affect anything else faster than the speed of light, then when we think about quantum mechanics, we have an obvious problem.
For example, if two particles are superimposed on each other, one particle is one light year apart from the other, and interacting with one particle immediately affects the other.
This clearly allows for \"faster communication than the speed of light,\" and Einstein labeled it as \"weird movements in the distance,\" which, however, can only illustrate an incomplete understanding of the scene, can be explained by quantum field theory (
Apparently, many people claim. 4. )
The last interesting concept of hysenber\'s uncertainty principle and quantum eraser is the \"hysenber uncertainty principle\", which accurately measures the uncertainty about the position or momentum of the particle.
In short, the biggest difference between the measured position of the particle and its actual position (
Uncertainty of location)
The maximum difference between the measured momentum multiplied by the particle and its actual momentum must always be greater than or equal to the Planck constant divided by two pi.
The principle of uncertainty is the reason why the measurement of hair becomes more inaccurate as the wavelength increases.
Increase the wavelength (
The position is inaccurate, but the wavelength is reduced (
Greater speed error is given.
If you want to do this extra part in the experiment, when you try to \"see\" The Light in multiple places at a time, show their effect, let them act suddenly like solid particles again, not like waves, and then let\'s go on.
What we have to do is make the information of which slit each photon passes through available, thus folding the wave-like behavior of the photon, and then letting them behave again as solid particles, and finally, erase the information, in this way, photons will be like waves, proving that the position of photons or small particles at any time is determined only at the moment of interaction with the universe (
What was observed or touched).
To do this, you need a polarizer and a clip.
You can get a partial mirror from a small LCD screen in some theaters or from the inside of 3D glasses.
Now cut the film into three equal ones. sized pieces.
Turn one piece at 90 degrees and put it behind the other.
It should black the back and block the light.
Clip the two film together and tape the hair (
Or a very small string)
Right at the seams between two pieces of film.
We will use the third film in a period of time.
How polarization works, only light oriented in some way can pass through the polarized film.
The direction allowed to pass depends on the direction of the film.
That\'s why we don\'t see light passing through two polarized filters perpendicular to each other.
The light is polarized in one direction and cannot pass through the second filter at a time because it rotates vertically and therefore is not in the right direction.
Anyway, if we hit the laser on the hair again, we will see that the wave pattern no longer exists, because by polarized the light on both sides of the hair, we provide information on which side the photon passes through.
Previously, photons passed through both at the same time, but now that they \"know\", you are looking at them and polarising them, so, mark them and enable them to find out which side they \"really\" go through, they only go through one side, and the pattern disappears.
You can selectively block photons from one or the other side of the hair by rotating the third polarized paper 90 or 180 degrees.
If we want to get this wave pattern again, we have to somehow clear this \"label\" on the photon \".
We have to clear the information about which photon is polarized in what direction.
The way we do this is we take the third partial film and rotate it 45 degrees.
This allows some light on both sides of the hair to pass through, so we can no longer find which side any photon passes through, and the previously described ability to selectively block photons from one side or the other also disappears.
Therefore, the pattern of the wave should reappear because the photons \"know\" that they are no longer \"observed \".
The experiment you just did is sometimes called the \"quantum eraser experiment \". ”5. )
As a crazy scientist and engineer, how will I deal with the laser cutting machine from the EPILOG ROCKS contest will be very useful!
I always like to patch around, but usually I only use household materials.
The laser cutting machine will be a good precision tool that can be used in the design of future gadgets I am working on, such as audio modulation Tesla coils, monitors, RC flying machines, robots, and more
I want to start.
Use most of the proceeds to help others.
Laser cutting machine is undoubtedly a valuable asset.
Anyway, I hope you enjoyed my tutorial.
Check out my youtube channel and learn more crazy science tutorials you can do at home using only home materials!