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how to buy universal testing machines. (outfitting your lab).
Called Universal tester, it is used to measure the tensile, bending, compression and shear properties of material evaluation, application development and quality control.
Advanced electronic devices improve the performance and ease of use of these instruments-
It even caused the price to drop.
Universal testing machine (UTMs)
Stretch, bend, compress or pull plastic samples at a controlled speed until they break.
They are one of the most common instruments in the laboratory of plastic manufacturers.
They use UTM during composite development to determine if the material is suitable for a given process and endUse the app.
UTM also helps in production quality control to ensure lotto-Batch consistency.
Today, UTMs also appear more frequently in the laboratory of plastic molds and extruder.
One of the reasons is that they are more involved in pre-product and process development.
The other is that they have conducted a more rigorous review of the quality control of incoming and finished parts.
Says Richard McManuis, Instron, product manager.
\"Many OEMs, especially in high-liability areas such as medical equipment or automobiles, require plastic processors to conduct their own tests at the end of production operations.
Another reason to test in-
The house is designed to improve process control, which can reduce scrap rates and generate real returns.
\"Different types of tests UTM consist of one or two vertical loads --
Install bearing columns that fix the horizontal substrate and the movable horizontal cross at the top.
In today\'s UTMs, the pillars usually have balls
Screw drive for locating movable cross head.
The size of the UTM is described by the combination of the maximum rated load of the frame and the load/force measurement load/sensor.
The load cell is connected to a moving cross head driven by an electric motor or dydraulics.
The load cell in series with the handle measures the force, which can be read on a digital display or PC.
Many UTMs have an interchanging load cell, so the sensor can match the material being tested.
UTMs apply force to the sample to induce strain in the plastic.
Stretch, bend, compress, or cut--
According to the direction of strain induction in the sample and the speed of force application, classification.
Static testing using standard electro-mechanical UTM.
They usually involve loading samples at a speed of 0. 001 in. to 20 in. /min.
Dynamic or cyclic tests, such as crack growth and fatigue, are usually performed on servo systems
Hydraulic UTMs with low load for long time.
Earlier, UTMs had analog electronics and chart recorders.
They are replaced by digital control and PC software.
The new control automatically runs the test and displays the data--
Sometimes even when the test is carried out.
In the old days of chart recorders, even in the early digital days before pc, all the users obtained from the test were representative y-
Axis and deformation on X axisaxis.
These curves need to be calculated and explained.
The latest systems still provide these curves, but they also calculate the expected data such as yield and failure strength and modulus.
The most common tests performed so far on plastics with UTM are tensile strength and modulus and bending strength and modulus.
For tensile tests of ASTM D638 and ISO 527, the sample is clipped at both ends.
One fixture is fixed and the other fixture is in the cross head away from the fixed fixture, pulling the sample until the sample breaks and the cross head then stops automatically.
Bending test (
ASTM D790 and D6272 and ISO 178)
Perform by placing the sample on two brackets on the machine\'s stationary bed.
For this test, the cross head is in the opposite direction of the tensile test, pushing instead of pulling the unsupported center of the sample until it is bent and may break.
Because many thermoplastic plastics do not break in this test, it may not be possible to calculate the ultimate bending strength.
Instead, the standard test protocol requires the calculation of the bending stress at 5% strain.
The less common use of UTMs is compression testing, although they play an important role in hard plastic foam testing according to ASTM D1621 and ISO 844.
UTMs can also be used for crushing testing of any type of molded products such as bottles.
The compression strength is calculated based on the stress required to destroy the sample or deform it to a given height percentage.
According to UTMs suppliers, the shear test of plastics is more rare.
The shear strength is obtained by putting the sample into the punch
The punch is pushed down at a speed of 0. 005 in.
/Min until the moving part of the sample clears the fixed part.
The shear strength is calculated by the force/area of the shear.
This is important in film and sheet products where this type of load can fail, whereas in the design of other extrusion and molded products this is rarely a factor
Plastic sheet or molded plastic plate 0. 005 to 0. 500 in.
Thick is used in the test according to ASTM D732 (
No ISO equivalent.
How to save the sample at the bottom of the machine is critical, as different types of tests require different fixtures or fixtures.
There are hundreds of types of handles and fixtures for various mechanical designs.
Their costs range from a few hundred dollars to $4000 to $5000 for hydraulic handles.
For tensile testing of plastic, the most common type is wedge-action, self-Tighten Grip. It self-
Tighten as the load increases.
For bending test, the most common is three
Point bending fixture. Saucer-
Shape platform for compression testing.
For Shear Tests, fixtures and fixtures are usually customized by the user or UTM supplier.
The capacity of commonly used mechanical and electrical units ranges from 100 to 135,000.
The larger the size, the higher the cost. Whether single-or dual-
In the plastic test, the most commonly used machine is the vertical desktop equipment.
The same principle applies to horizontal machines, which are primarily downgraded to use during Automation, which utilizes robots to continuously process samples. The vertical machine covers a smaller area and is easier to operate.
They have gravity that benefits them, which makes them suitable for fine samples such as film and heavier molded parts. Single-
The force capacity of the column UTM machine is lower and the cost is lower.
They have a frame capacity of up to 1000. Dual-
Load-there are columns in UTMs
Frame capacity from 1000 to 135,000.
The rated maximum strength of the load cell should also be suitable for UTM frames and samples.
For example, 100-
Lb load cell placed in 1000-
The Lb frame allows testing with a force of up to 100.
The capacity of the load cell should not exceed the estimated breaking load on the sample or the measurement accuracy will be greatly affected.
Many plastic users in singleor dual-
Column units up to 5000-
According to Wayne Hayward, marketing manager at Tinius Olsen, lb capacity and a set of three load cells.
His company\'s most popular UTMs has 1000-and 2000-lb capacity.
Craig Stanton, marketing manager at MTS Systems, agrees that the most commonly used machines in plastic testing are at 2000-to 5000-lb frame-capacity range.
MacManuis from Instron said that tests for unreinforced plastics are rarely used more than 2000-
Lb frame capacity.
For filler and reinforced plastics, a machine with a frame capacity of 5000 to 7000 is usually required.
But for composites with continuous glass, carbon, or other fibers, the load frame is up to 60,000-
Lb capacity or more may be required.
If you buy a machine with a much larger capacity than you need, you will not only pay more in cash, but also pay more in the test time.
Larger units run slower.
For example, a 250-
Lb frames usually run below 40 in.
The Lb frame runs in 20 minutes. /min.
Single or double?
How much maximum load you usually need depends on the type of material you are testing and is one of the key issues to consider when deciding whether to choose a single load
Column or double-column machine.
It is also necessary to consider whether a large ambient chamber is required for testing at a controlled temperature. Dual-
The column unit is higher, allowing the insertion of larger samples and larger heat cabinets between the columns.
If you\'re going to do any compression tests on the foam,
Because the sample is often large, column units are usually required. Dual-
The column machine is naturally hard.
Therefore, there is less deflection during the test.
The last but not least is the cost difference. Single-
Bar UTMs only costs $7000 to $10,000 while double-
Train prices generally range from $13,500 to $30,000.
These price ranges are for machine use only.
The price of the load cell ranges from $1500 to $5000. Data-
Acquisition and analysis software, excluding PC, could cost as much as $2500.
Fixtures and fixtures are another separate cost, as are installation and training.
Hot rooms are usually sold for $8000 to $20,000 if you need.
The development of software technology makes the mechanical and electronic design of UTMs quite mature.
There has been a new development in control software.
Modern PC software improves work efficiency and accuracy, and is more convenient to use.
Instron\'s McManuis said, \"software features add to the level of repeatability that has not been achieved before.
Art Nehr, marketing manager, testing machines, added.
, \"Designers and quality managers can now see what will happen throughout the testing process, rather than relying on one reading at the break point.
Is the material stretched or deformed before breaking?
Is it deformed in proportion to the force?
These answers can help them evaluate alternative materials, determine safety margins, and better simulate the terminal
\"The new software enables automation of testing, data collection, analysis, report output, and data storage and retrieval.
The user can tell the machine to run at a certain load rate, and the system will automatically adjust the speed of the cross head.
The new software also allows the user to obtain a true strain value through the position sensor during the testing process, which accurately measures how far the cross head has moved.
The change in the length of the sample is divided by its original length for automatic strain calculation.
The new software also allows automatic loading-
Cell identification and calibration when replacing the sensor.
It \"reads\" The electronic devices of the load cell and sets the parameters, thus eliminating the mechanical modifications previously performed by the operator.
Updated software with faster data acquisition provides more accurate capture of peak loads and allows for more detailed inspection of stress/strain curves when running tests at higher speeds or fluctuating loads. Typical data-
The acquisition rate is about 50Hz (
Read 50 times per second)
Although the sample rate of up to 5 kHz can be obtained. The newest PC-
The powered UTMs are cheaper than machines with digital control panels that have been around for more than a decade.
The new PC model has a simpler control and usually cancels the digital display that provides a graphical reading.
Hayward from Tinius Olsen said, \"software for the new PC --
UTMs-based can now drive the entire operation so that costs can be reduced by eliminating digital displays and some electronic devices.
\"Last year, the PC launched by Olsen Tinius-based T-
Single Series-and dual-
Column UTMs with a capacity of up to 22,250.
Hayward estimates that T-in the machine-
Series, including data collection of computer and test navigation software, costs about 10% of the company\'s S-
A range of desktop units with digital control panels.
\"Users have to re-program,\" Hayward said.
A series of machines that change the test program. With the PC-driven T-
Series, you can choose the user-
Optional test routines for measuring different parameters.
\"Instron has recently added a range of options for the cost of its new model 3300 Serieseffective, PC-driven single-and dual-
Column UTMs with frame capacity up to 11,000.
According to McManuis, the design changes in the frame and electronic devices reduce the cost of these devices.
The 3300 Series does not have a hardware control panel but uses a dedicated electronic device for measurement and control in the load frame.
Instron\'s other two series of electro-mechanical UTMs--the higher-
Performance models 5500 and 5800, frame capacity 100 to 135,000-are also PC-
In addition to the measurement and control electronics in the frame, the drive uses the hardware control panel, although the buttons are less than the earlier versions.
Fully equipped single apartmentcolumn, 1000-
The lb unit price of these three series ranges from $19,000 to $30,000.
Full load double
The cost of the 1000 to 5000 pound column model is $19,000 to $36,000.
The price includes PC, TX/s Series Software, a set of handles and a load cell. Dual-
Column units, 2000-to 5000-
Lb frame capacity in MTS system new PC-
The alliance-based RT desktop range costs $25,000 to $50,000.
This includes machines, PCs, testing-
Works 4 software, a load cell, a set of handles, installation and training.
The digital control system of the RT series is located on a single circuit card in the load frame.
It is said to improve reliability and reduce downtime.
It is said that the point guide system provides excellent cross head guidance through x, y and z axis to improve accuracy and repeatability.
MTS is relatively new to the collaborative low-force Series of UTMs.
These are orders.
Column desktop unit up to 1000-
Lb frame capacity. Also PC-
It is reported that they are very popular among the thin crowdfilm testing.
Recently launched LabMaster single-
Column UTM system for low level
Force test up to 250.
The R & D instrument combines the tension tester, load cell and network-
Prepare a Windows PC in a flat situation
Panel, touch screen display to minimize bench
It includes the latest enhancements to the company\'s LabMaster software, called the test method Wizard, which simplifies the setup
Start-up and automation of test sequences.
It has high resolution and can detect minor changes in the position of the load or sample.
It costs $16,000 to $16,500.
The application test system recently launched the upgraded ATS 1600 series, which is now composed of two
Column units in load-
Frame capacity from 1000 to 500,000.
They are PCdriven of the company\'s TestVu software.
Denny King, marketing manager, said 1601 to 1605 models (1000-to 5000-lb capacity)
The cost, including PC, software and load cell, is $20,000 to $25,000, but there is no fixture. Ametek Inc.
Testing and Calibration Instruments
Two new enhanced orders were launched
Lloyd\'s subsidiary in the United States, UTMsK.
Their cross head speed is wider than earlier versions, and in addition, through the company\'s proprietary Windows PC, they have improved their electronic devices and increased the speed of communication
Materials based on Nexygen
Analysis and testing software.
Their overall console comes with a keyboard and LCD display.
One version is the LFPlus series digital tester, one low
A force unit with a load of up to 250.
Its speed range is 0. 002 to 50 in.
/Min and improved electronic equipment, data are reported to have been added
Sampling rate of machine eight-fold.
The other version is the LRXPlus series with a capacity of up to 1100 lbs and a speed of 0 for the cross. 004 in. to 49 in. /min.
It can store up to 600 test results from 10 programmable test settings.
Unlike mechanical and electrical UTMs performing static tests, servo-
Hydraulic UTMs perform dynamic or fatigue tests.
These need to be applied repeatedly in the cyclic load-and-release action.
In fatigue cracks, for example
Growth testing, users are looking to determine how many cycles the material needs to break.
Dynamic testing requires less force than static testing on a mechanical and electrical device. Servo-
The load capacity of the hydraulic machine ranges from 100 to tons, usually at two to three times the cost of the mechanical and electrical UTMs.
They are mainly used for fatigue testing of metals, but in automotive, aerospace, biomedical, and electronic applications, plastics have been replacing metals that are prone to fatigue in structural components.
\"We have seen processors that require testing of plastic components provide information about their lifecycle,\" said Stanton of MTS, leader of servo systems.
In the past two years, MTS has developed two PC-driven servo-
The column UTMs is reported to have the unique ability to perform a series of low levels
Force Dynamics and static testing of materials and widgets.
Not low though-
The cost of these units makes dynamic testing more affordable than ever before.
Benefits of servo-
Hydraulic drive avoids the need for hydraulic oil, pump and water cooling.
The electric model on the market is a professional unit with very low force capacity.
One is MTS Tytron 250 micro-force, one is 50-lb horizontal-
Frame units for testing film packaging films, biomedical pipelines and stitching lines, and micro-electronics.
Another MTS model, NanoBionix, is mainly bio-oriented.
Material Research and product development.
It has a speed of up to 2500 times/second and a maximum load of only 51g.
It is suitable for testing the quasi-static and dynamic properties of elastic materials or very small micro-electronic components.
Now MTS has just launched its first servo system.
Electric UTM with higher frame capacity--1000 lb. This brand-new PC-driven, dual-
Column units perform standard static and dynamic tests at up to 20Hz.
\"This is a breakthrough in the servo system,\" Stanton said.
Electric frame capacity, which provides a plastic processor, this machine can be dynamically tested without costing a lot of servo costshydraulic unit.
\"The new ututm will debut in NPE on June, and as a complete system it will be sold for about $50,000 ---
Within the same scope as the superior
End mechanical and electrical system or lower partend servo-Hydraulic model.
Need to know more? Ametek Inc.
, Testing and calibration instrument department. , Largo, Fla. (727)536-7831, www. ametek.
Application test system. Inc. , Butler, Pa. (724)283-1212, www. atspa.
Com Instron. , Canton, Mass. (781)828-2500, www. instron.
, Is also a Minnesota. (952)937-4000, www. mts.
Com testing machines, Ronkonkoma, N. Y. (631)439-5400, www. Test the machine.
Com Tinius Olsen Testing Machine Co. , Ltd. , Horsham, Pa. (215)675-7100, www. tiniusolsen.